Implications for the Online Classroom
- Because adults need to know why they are learning something, accomplished instructors explain their reasons for teaching specific skills.
- Because adults learn by doing, effective instruction focuses on tasks that adults can perform, rather than on memorization of content.
- Because adults are problem-solvers and learn best when the subject is of immediate use, effective instruction involves the learner in solving real-life problems.
- Because adults are more internally motivated such as self-esteem and worthiness, accomplished instructors create a sense of belonging by making learners feel heard. This could include activities, topics, and examples that students identify with so they feel comfortable in bringing their authentic self to class each day.
Part II Online Instruction - Back to Basics
A Sudden Lack of Structure
The disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have dramatically altered many people’s normal routines, which makes it that much harder to cope with the stress that people are feeling. Many online instructors have quickly discovered that the constant isolation and lack of a normal schedule can be mentally taxing. This lack of structure and routine exacerbates feelings of distress. In addition, there have been instances where campus support personnel and teams have not been available to help instructors learn about and implement online learning, leaving them to improvise quick solutions in less-than-ideal circumstances. Many instructors have understandably found this process stressful.
The second part of this series aims to reduce the stress of online instructors by providing easy and simple strategies that can assist them to teach online in an effective manner. Rather than sharing the impressive bells and whistles of certain digital learning tools, we offer advice and strategies related to select instructional strategies that we know work and serve as a foundation of teaching and learning. We chose this approach for two reasons:
To enhance the skills of online instructors so that they can carefully plan for online learning that includes not just identifying the content to cover, but how to support different types of interactions that are important to the learning process. This approach recognizes learning as both a social and a cognitive process, not merely a matter of information transmission.
To provide a basic set of teaching and learning concepts that online instructors can quickly implement in their courses. We selected basic remote teaching solutions for instruction that would otherwise be delivered face-to-face. These tips allow for online instructors to focus on their behaviors in order to develop habits that they can control as a means for reducing stress and adding a sense of predictability to their day.
Four Basic Remote Teaching Solutions That Can Reduce Stress
Remote Teaching Solution One: Planning
What Is It?
Planning is when instructors formulate a course of action for carrying out instruction over a year, a semester, a course, a week or several weeks, a day, or a lesson. Decisions made by instructors as a plan for instruction have an influence on all aspects of their classroom behavior and, consequently, on the nature of the learning outcomes that result from instruction. Effective online learning results from careful instructional design and planning using a systematic model for design and development.
Why Is Planning Important For Instructors?
If instructors attend to content, instructional materials, activities, learner needs, and goals in their instructional planning, then the resulting preparedness can increase the probability of effective classroom performance.
If instructors plan, then they experience more confidence, direction, and security in their performance in the classroom.
If instructors attend to elements such as the instructional setting (whether it’s a physical setting or a virtual setting), the selection of basic texts and materials, and familiarity with social and academic development of their students early in the year then a framework for future planning can be established for the year.
What Can Instructors Focus On During Planning In Order To Reduce Their Stress?
Effective instructors are experts at goal focusing which is the instructor’s consideration for a general aim or expected outcome of instruction. The instructor should focus on the intended student outcome that should result from instruction both in general terms and in specific terms. For example, the instructor could state:
“My goal is to have this group through --- by the end of the year.”
“My goal during the first week of this course is to help students understand ----- .”
“The first objective in our course is to describe ---- in order to help students ----- .”
“Students have always known about ---, so today I am focusing on ------ .”
Effective instructors are able to identify the state of their learners and can indicate what their learner does know (or needs to know), what they should be able to do, and how they should feel. This diagnosis is an important process to planning a segment of instruction. The instructor should focus on sharing statements that focus on student ability or achievement, background preparation, or needs in the course. For example, the instructor could state:
“They understand the concept of ----, but they need to understand the concept of ---.”
“My learners will need to be able to ---- first in order to ----- in Week 4.”
“I have two students enrolled in my course that do not know -----, but they can -----. They have strength in -----, but ---- seems to be a weakness based on ----.”
“My students do not have trouble with ------, but they do have difficulty -----. So, I’m sure that I will be revisiting ----- for additional practice this week in order to follow-up and prepare them for ------.”
Effective instructors are able to cite an order or pattern for a series of activities. The instructor should focus on analyzing instructional activities and break down an activity into its component parts specifying such things as sequential steps, how materials will be used, and instructor/student participation in the activity.
Effective instructors are able to evaluate their instructional activities in order to specify the format of their activities. The instructor should focus on judging the appropriateness of their instructional activity on the basis of specific criteria such as learner state, match with content, instructional format, available time, or other factors deemed important.
How Can Instructors Effectively Plan For Learning?
While we can state with certainty that planning influences classroom teaching, there are very few correlational or experimental studies of the effects of planning on instructor behavior in the classroom or student achievement. This lack of knowledge about the direct and indirect effects of various instructor planning activities or behaviors precludes the formulation of a research-based prescriptive model of effective planning, at this time.
The instructional planning model is a popular formula for instructors to apply during planning which includes:
Specifying behavioral objectives.
Specifying students entry behavior (their knowledge and skills).
Selecting and sequencing productive learning activities to move students from entry behavior to objective.
Evaluating the outcomes of instruction in order to improve planning
Despite the popularity of this formula, the most definitive thing that we have learned from research on planning is that the instructional planning model is consistently not used by instructors as a linear model while planning for instruction. This is not because the formula is ineffective; it’s because the order of consideration for the various components and the decisions made within each component appears to be variable from instructor to instructor and cyclical in nature rather than linear. For example, it appears that certain parts of the analysis of content actually occur as an instructor is structuring the activity to be used for instruction rather than as part of a planning component that is exclusively concerned with content coverage.
Traditionally, instructors have been taught to plan using a linear model in which they first state objectives, then specify the students’ knowledge and skills, select learning activities and finally evaluate the outcomes. Evidence is abundant that instructors do not typically initiate the planning process with a statement of goals and objectives, but with a concern for activities, content, learner needs, or materials and resources. Additionally, objectives receive little explicit attention in the planning process of most instructors. The findings of several previous studies continue to be relevant to this day, making them appropriate to reference in supporting this claim.
Brown (1988) found that during planning, instructors’ first considerations were what instructional activities to use and how these fit the schedule, curriculum guides, content, and students’ ability and interest. Zahorik (1975) asked 194 instructors to list their planning decisions.
51% listed the content as their first decision
81% listed instructional activities as a decision but only 3% listed as first
28% started their planning with objectives
Hill et al. (1983) found that instructors used more than one starting point to begin planning such as materials or activities, but they did not start with terminal objectives. Another factor instructors considered in planning was their repertoire or what they have taught in the past.
There is some evidence that planning according to a linear model beginning with a statement of goals may have adverse or unintended consequences. Once instructors state objectives in advance, they strive to maintain a lesson focus that will enable them to attain the objectives they have set. Zahorick (1970) analyzed the behaviors of two sets of teachers, both of whom had been assigned a particular lesson. One group was supplied with a partial lesson plan outlining the content to be covered. The other group was not. Analysis of the results showed that instructors who planned in a more regimented style exhibited less honest or authentic use of students' ideas. Zahorick’s conclusion was that the objectives-first planning model decreases the teacher's sensitivity to the ideas, thoughts, and actions of the learners.
Take a minute to think about how you formulate a course of action for a lesson. Consider these questions to get you thinking:
What is the process that you go through?
How did you arrive at this process?
What has influenced the way that you prepare for instruction and how you make decisions?
What is the extent in which you map out specific steps that you as the instructor will take during the lesson?